Fifth Semester, B. Pharm.
Dysmenorrhoea refers to pain occurring before or during menstruation. It is also commonly referred to as period pain or menstrual cramps. . It can occur at any age but most commonly observed in women 20-45 years of age. Primary dysmenorrhoea occurs when pelvic anatomy and ovarian function are normal and no exact cause can be found for pain. Secondary dysmenorrhoea describes pain due to pelvic pathology. Lower abdominal pain, pain radiating to back or thighs varying from minor to a severe cramping pain are general symptoms.
Prostaglandin is synthesized from cycloxygenase pathway in which the precursor is fatty acid so high fat intake during menstruation can produce high prostaglandin and cause more pain. To some women, thyroid disorder is also related with menstrual pain. During menstruation, prostaglandin synthesis occurs from endometrium, which briefly cuts off the supply of oxygen to the uterus causing pain and cramping. Nausea, vomiting and diarrhea can also occur during menstruation. Management is focused on treating the symptoms mostly and surgical treatment is limited due to associated complications and the recurrence of symptoms. In case of mild menstrual cramps, taking over the counter medicines such as; aspirin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen or naproxen could provide relief. Heating pad or hot water bottle on lower back or pelvic region can be placed.
Taking a warm bath may also provide some relief. Foods that contain caffeine , tobacco and alcohol should be avoided. Women who exercise regularly often have less menstrual pain. To help prevent cramps, exercise should be made a part of our weekly routine. There are many home remedies to relieve pain. Walking is effective in reducing menstrual pain because it improves blood circulation in the pelvic area. Swimming is also very effective in reducing menstrual pain as it releases endorphins, the body’s natural painkiller which is effective home remedy for menstrual pain. Decoction made by mixing one or all of the following ingredients is effective in addressing variety of menstrual problems; Sesame seeds, ginger coriander seeds, marigold, mango bark, banana flowers, lemon grass etc. Their intake during menstrual period or days before the start of the menstrual cycle is effective in treatment of menstrual pain and irregular menstrual cycle.
Dutta DC (2008) Dutta’s Textbook of Gynecology (6th Ed.) New Central Book Agency (P) Ltd, Kolkata, p171.
URL-1: http://wwxw.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/240513.php (Accessed on May 13, 2020)
URL-2: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3791249/ (Accessed on May 12, 2020)
URL-3:read:https://home-cure.net/best-home-remedies-for-menstrual-pain-natural-cures/ (Accessed on May 30, 2020)